645 million is the number of Africans without access to a source of electricity. And this figure will automatically continue to rise as population growth outstrips new power generation capacity. Pumping fresh water, running medical dispensaries, allowing children to do their homework in the evening or having access to the internet: no economic or human development is possible without energy. In order to meet the future needs of these inhabitants, the rapid development of electricity production is essential.
Photovoltaic solar energy (or electricity produced from solar energy) represents a promising solution because it allows the rapid deployment, on a very large scale, of carbon-free and economically accessible energy. The advantages of photovoltaics are well known. However, to date, an insignificant number of solar power plants have been built in Africa.
The objective of this policy paper is to identify the challenges to the deployment of solar energy in Africa and to propose concrete solutions enabling it to be deployed and thus to meet the demographic and climatic challenges of the African continent. While it is important to reduce the CO2 emissions of countries such as France - which accounts for 1.2% of global emissions -, or Germany - 2.7% - one of the priorities of global climate policy must also aim to contain future emissions by the inhabitants of the African continent, without hindering its economic development.