Without falling into Marxism, it is likely that the economy - globalization, 40 years of neoliberalism, the 2008 crisis - has something to do (at least in Western countries) with the phenomenon we describe.
And yet... First lesson: something happened in the first 18 years of this 21st century, which, regardless of the boundaries separating political systems, has led to the decline of the values of the Enlightenment.
Viktor Orbàn was elected Vice President of the Liberal International in a congress in Mainz at the end of the 1990s. In the year 2000, Mr Putin still appeared as a ‘liberal' in a Russia emerging from the post-Soviet chaos. At the time, Mr Erdogan proposed to reconcile political Islam and democracy. At the other end of the spectrum, Mr Xi was in 2000 already pursuing the typical career of a senior Chinese CP official, with the ambition of reaching the top. Yet he only added his "personal" touch, which now characterizes his absolute exercise of power, much later.