Two questions are of prime importance: How reliable is the United States under the Biden administration? And will European states be able to rely on each other when necessary?
Donald Trump’s election as President of the United States was a shock for Berlin. But although the American President never tired of criticizing Germany the most of all the Allies, Berlin did not, as Barbara Kunz demonstrated, draw the conclusion that Europe inevitably needs a "plan B" to compensate for degrading transatlantic relations and increasing uncertainties regarding US security guarantees. The country has strongly felt that "the times when one could rely on others are somewhat over". Nevertheless, this conviction was not followed by concrete ramifications in defense policies.