Source: Gilfillan et al. (2019), UNFCCC (2019), BP (2019), Global Carbon Atlas
India’s objectives remain the same today. The strategy to achieve the first two relies primarily on the development of renewable energy. (Incidentally, India has had a Ministry of New and Renewable Energy since 1992). Prime Minister Narendra Modi has reiterated recently that India was aiming for 175 gigawatts (GW) of renewable capacity by the year 2022 and 450 GW by 2030. Today, renewable energy accounts for about 90 GW of the total installed capacity – 369 GW.
The Indian government wants to use its 7,500 km-long coastal area to develop offshore wind energy. The objective is to reach a 30 GW large capacity by 2030. However, solar energy remains the priority, given the fact that India’s potential, with 300 sunny days a year, is huge. In 2015, India’s target was to achieve a 100 GW solar capacity by 2022. Since then, 42 solar parks have been opened to make land available for solar plants – aided by the fact that India has the lowest capital per MW of installing solar plants in the world. In July 2020, the installed capacity has reached 35.12 GW.
The impact of these policies is obvious in the graph below which shows that solar energy output rose by over a quarter while wind energy generation rose by 5%. The contribution of solar and wind energy to Indiaʼs overall energy generation rose to 8.8%, more than double their share of 3.6% in 2015.