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« The mission we carry with the entire team of Institut Montaigne is to work for the effectiveness of public action, social cohesion and the competitiveness of our economy. That’s why our daily ambition is to innovate, evaluate, propose and experiment in pursuit of these goals. »
Henri de Castries
PRESIDENT

Our Mission

Institut Montaigne is a pioneering independent think tank
dedicated to public policy in France and Europe.

Since our creation in 2000, we have been developing concrete proposals for rendering public action more efficient, strengthening our social cohesion, improving competitiveness and consolidating France's public finances. Our work is the result of a rigorous, critical and open method of analysis based on international comparisons, and is addressed at economic and political players as well as government bodies. We bring together business leaders, senior civil servants, academics, civil society and contributors from a wide range of backgrounds. 
 
Institut Montaigne is run exclusively through private contributions. We are being funded by over 150 companies of different sizes and sectors, each representing less than 2% of the total budget, which amounts to € 4.1 million. 

Through its various actions - proposals, evaluations of public policies, citizen participations and experimentations - Institut Montaigne aims to fully play a key role in the democratic debate, by regularly publishing reports and policy papers and organizing events with high-level speakers.
 

« Since its creation in 2000, Institut Montaigne has been serving the general interest of France in a constant spirit of independence. This project feeds on the great diversity of those who contribute to it and relies and the loyal support of our members. »
CLAUDE BÉBÉAR
FOUNDER
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Our organization

Our story

Since its creation by Claude Bébéar in 2000, Institut Montaigne has invested many fields, covering the main challenges facing France: diversity, education, higher education, vocational training, the restructuring and financing of welfare services, pension reform, and many more. Education and higher education were among the first subjects to be part of its work program. In 2001, Institut Montaigne advocated genuine autonomy for universities. In 2010, priority was given to primary school, by creating Agir pour l'école, a spin-off whose ambition is to find solutions against school failure and inequalities.

The theme of diversity also quickly became a priority for Institut Montaigne: in 2004 with its Diversity Charter, then in 2011 and 2014 with the publication of two books by Gilles Kepel, Banlieue de la République and Passion française. Institut Montaigne continued this dynamic with the completion in 2015 of an unprecedented survey on religious discrimination in hiring, and then, in 2016, with a report on French Islam, steered by Hakim El Karoui.

Resolutely European, Institut Montaigne has made several commitments to the European project, with about 20 publications on the subject to its credit. Surrounded by renowned international experts, Institut Montaigne also seeks to impact France's foreign policy. Its policy paper on the conflict in Syria in 2017 and the report on French foreign policy in the MENA region that same year are two examples of this. This international dynamic, fostered by Henri de Castries, our President since 2015, is one of Institut Montaigne's major development priorities for the coming years.

Committed to strengthening democracies, positioned against cumulative mandates in 2002, for the restructuring of French prisons in 2008 and the defense of freedoms in 2010 and 2012, Institut Montaigne strongly mobilized during the last election campaigns. This can be seen in the quantitative analyses of candidates' programs for the 2012 and 2017 French presidential elections, the 2014 municipal elections and the 2015 regional elections. Institut Montaigne also produced the first “serious game” on public finance available to the public, encouraging citizens to understand in real time the impact of macroeconomic and political measures on the State budget.

In the area of ​​employment (2013 and 2015), social dialogue (2015), labor laws (2016), vocational training (2017) and apprenticeship (2017), Institut Montaigne proposes ambitious reforms, all aimed at improving competitiveness and social cohesion. On healthcare, Institut Montaigne distinguished itself by organizing a citizens' conference on the reform of the French system. It enabled 25 citizens to come together to propose ambitious actions to ensure the sustainability of the French healthcare system. This commitment was strengthened in 2017 with the creation of the first sectoral program entirely devoted to healthcare policy.

So many subjects and so many opportunities for Institut Montaigne to renew the forms of its contributions and to promote its recommendations over time.

Accounts & Statuses

Institut Montaigne is a non-profit organization, depending on the French law of 1901.

The annual budget of Institut Montaigne is about 4.1 million euros.

More than 150 companies, of all sizes and all industries, contribute every year to its operation, each one of them representing less than 2% of the total budget. About 300 legal persons also support Institut Montaigne’s procedure. Their total support represents 1% of the operating budget of Institut Montaigne. The accounts and annexes are published in the Journal Officiel (official gazette of the French Republic), and available in their entirety by clicking here.

Institut Montaigne established some rules to prevent conflicts of interest, and adheres to a code of conduct built around a number of basic principles.

Accounts
 
Income  
  Amount
Total income 3 837 356 €
Membership fees 3 470 200 €
Sales and other proceeds 93 375 €
Financial proceeds 97 328 €
Exceptional profit sharing     176 453 €
   
   
Expenses  
  Amount
Total expenses 3 808 469 €
General expenses 582 811 €
Wages and social costs 1 858 713 €
Publications 569 021 €
Events 145 040 €
External relations 496 104 €
Exceptions (mainly events and partnerships)     156 780 €
Outcome
28 887 €
Statuses of the association

An association is hereby created between the parties to these articles of association, governed by the amended law of July 1st, 1901, and by its implementing ordinance of August 16, 1901.

This Association exists under the denomination: "Institut Montaigne".

As an independent think tank, free from any political and economic constraint, Institut Montaigne is organized into several working groups gathering representatives of civil society (intellectuals, academics, experts, business managers, qualified individuals, etc.).

Dealing with a variety of topics, Institut Montaigne develops and circulates long-term concrete proposals. These proposals result from a rigorous and critical analysis method, relying especially on the study of relevant public policy experiences from abroad. Once adopted, these recommendations are relayed through public opinion, to set off the broadest debate as possible.

Institut Montaigne may also engage in any operation, including experimental or search operations, for the study and implementation of the concrete proposals and recommendations it develops.

Institut Montaigne can exceptionally implement the necessary means to these operations, including by contributing to their financing, insofar as they constitute the consequence and implementation of its concrete proposals and recommendations.

The headquarters of Institut Montaigne are located in Paris and may be transferred by sole decision of the Board of Directors.

The duration of the Association is unlimited.

Institut Montaigne is composed of “active members” and “associate members”, whose membership applications should be approved by the Board of Directors:

Are included as “active members”, the natural and legal persons who actively take part in Institut Montaigne’s operation, and who pay an annual fee. The minimum fee, which can vary based on the characteristics of these persons, is set every year by the General Meeting.

Are included as “founding members”, the legal entities who actively take part in Institut Montaigne’s operation, and who pay an annual fee. The minimum fee, which can vary based on the characteristics of these persons, is set every year by the General Meeting.

The “founding members” (or their representatives) take part and vote in the General Meetings.

Are included as “supporting members”, the natural persons who made a substantial donation to Institut Montaigne directly or, for the non-residents, through ad-hoc structures allowing to optimize their membership conditions. The minimum amount of this donation is set to one hundred thousand euros. This amount, which can vary every year, is set by the General Meeting. 

The “supporting members” (or their representatives) take part and vote in the General Meetings.

Are included as “associate members”, the natural persons interested in the work of Institut Montaigne. They pay an annual fee; the minimum amount is set every year by the General Meeting.

The associate Members take part and have an advisory vote in the General Meetings.

The Membership can be lost by:
•    Death or incapacity
•  The dismissal pronounced by the Board of Directors, the concerned party having been called upon beforehand to provide an explanation
•    The resignation notified to the Board of Directors
•    The non-payment of the annual fee
•    For the legal entities, their dissolution, liquidation or receivership

Institut Montaigne is administered by a Board of Directors, which ensures consistency and circulation in the work and publications.

The Board of Directors is composed of at least four and at most fifteen members, appointed by the General Meeting, for a renewable period of three years. The members of the Board of Directors do not necessarily have to be members of Institut Montaigne.
The Board of Directors shall elect from among its members a President, one or several Vice Presidents, and a Treasurer. The function of Treasurer can be held concurrently with the function of Vice President.

The Board of Directors can elect from among its members an Honorary President. He/She takes part and has an advisory vote at the Board of Directors’ meetings.

Decisions shall be taken on the basis of a simple majority. In the event of a split vote, the President’s vote takes precedence.

The President has the most extensive powers. He/She represents Institut Montaigne in dealings with third parties. The Vice-President(s) shall stand in for the President in the absence of the latter. The Treasurer is in charge of the accounts.

In case of death or resignation of a member of the Board of Directors, a replacement shall be elected at the next General Meeting.

Meetings of the Board of Directors are convened by simple letter of the President, as often as required in the interest of Institut Montaigne. They can also be convened, on the same terms, by half of its members. The agenda is set by the President.

In an advisory capacity, the President can invite to the Board of Directors’ meeting any person he/she may deem useful for advancing the work of Institut Montaigne.

Upon the proposal of the President, the Board of Directors shall appoint an Executive Director, responsible for executing its decisions, and managing Institut Montaigne’s services. He/She can be an employee of Institut Montaigne.

The Executive Director shall have the right to attend the meetings of the Board of Directors and the General Meetings, with an advisory capacity.

Upon the proposal of the President, the Board of Directors shall appoint a Director of Studies, who assists and coordinates the work of Institut Montaigne. He/She can be an employee of Institut Montaigne.

Institut Montaigne is served by an Advisory Board of fifteen members at most, chaired by a qualified individual appointed by the President of Institut Montaigne.

Upon the proposal of the Board of Directors, the members are appointed, by a majority vote, by the General Meeting, for a three-year period.

The Advisory Board shall meet at least twice a year. It is consulted especially on: Institut Montaigne's work (studies, research, circulation, etc.), and the collaborative projects with foreign institutes.

The Ordinary General Meeting is made up of all Members of Institut Montaigne. It gathers at least twice a year, when convened by the President. Invitations shall be sent out by simple letter, at least fifteen days before the date of the Meeting, and should include the agenda.

The General Meeting listens to the activity report of the Executive Committee. It approves the financial report of the Treasurer, as well as the annual accounts submitted by the Board of Directors. It deliberates on the issues on the agenda.

The Ordinary General Meeting is also competent in any matter not expressly assigned to another body.

In an advisory capacity, the President can invite to the Ordinary General Meeting any person he/she may deem useful for advancing the work of Institut Montaigne.

Minutes shall be kept of the deliberations and resolutions of the General Meetings. Signed by the President, they are kept in a register.

The Ordinary General Meeting may validly deliberate only if at least a quarter of its founding members and benefactors are present or represented. In the absence of a quorum, a new General Meeting shall be convened within thirty days; it may then deliberate whatever the number of founding Members or benefactors present or represented.

The active members who cannot be present at the Ordinary General Meeting can empower another active member to represent them. The active members present at the General Meeting cannot hold more than two nominative powers. The non-nominative powers will be deemed established for the decisions proposed by the Board of Directors.

Decisions shall be taken on the basis of a simple majority of the present and represented active members. In the event of a split vote, the President’s vote takes precedence.

The President can convene an Extraordinary General Meeting on the same terms as for an Ordinary General Meeting. 

This Meeting has the power to proceed to the amendment of these articles of association, upon the proposal of the Board of Directors.

The Extraordinary General Meeting can also decide on the dissolution of the Institute, as well as on its terms and conditions. In case of a dissolution, it shall appoint one or several Commissioners responsible for the liquidation. In case of net assets, they will be given to similar institutions, according to legal regulations.

The Extraordinary General Meeting may validly deliberate only if at least a third of its founding members and benefactors are present or represented. In the absence of a quorum, a new General Meeting shall be convened within thirty days; it may then deliberate whatever the number of founding members or benefactors present or represented.

Decisions shall be taken by a two-thirds majority of the present and represented active members.

Institut Montaigne’s resources come from: membership fees; subsidies and donations it is empowered to receive; any other resource authorized by law.

Almost 95% of our income comes from our members’ donations, which do not represent any future benefit for the donator other than nominal consideration. The other sources of income come from our financial proceeds.

The Board of Directors can establish and amend the rules of procedure, which adopt the necessary implementation conditions of these articles of association. It can also establish various points not provided for by these articles of association.

The rules of procedure are approved by the Ordinary General Meeting.

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59, rue la Boétie 75008 Paris

© Institut Montaigne 2017