If disinformation is considered as a threat by the French Defense Ministry, it is not qualified as such in French legal texts and has not resulted in the creation of ministerial organizations.
The UK also set up the National Security Communications Team and the Rapid Response Unit within the government in 2018. The National Security Communications Team is to increase the UK’s resilience to serious national security threats and the government’s capability to use communications effectively during its response. The Rapid Response Unit is monitoring news and information online to identify misinformation and disinformation. While the role of the government, the police and the judiciary in policing disinformation is small, the government uses strategic communications to tackle it.