On the other hand, some Chinese experts look into the issue of China’s challenges at a global level. For Zhao Kejin, Deputy Director of Tsinghua’s Center for U.S.-China Relations, and Qi Zhenhong, President of China Institute of International Studies (CIIS), one of the biggest challenges faced by China’s diplomacy is the extent to which the world is able to understand and accept China’s development.
Zhao Kejin argues that China is currently "big but not strong (大而不强)" and "rich but not superior (富而不优)", and this has caused a series of diplomatic incidents7. Those include the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands dispute, the South China Sea dispute, China-US trade frictions, and the China-India border confrontation. In the eyes of Chinese experts, as China approaches the center of the world stage, it has triggered a chain reaction in the international community. Theories of "China’s threat", "China’s debt trap", "China’s neo-colonialism" have become popular, and various strategic moves to obstruct China's rise or generate skepticism and doubts regarding China’s ultimate intentions are frequently made. This includes the criticism of China’s diplomacy style. In other words, China is facing the issue of non-acceptance in the international community. As a solution, Qi Zhenhong advocates greater communication and exchanges with political parties, think tanks, scholars, and media in other countries, in order to build a consensus on a new type of international relations8.
Some Chinese experts dismiss the likelihood of a new cold war, based on their belief that China does not aim to become a hegemonic power. According to Wang Cungang, Professor at Nankai University, China’s constant mention of its anti-hegemonic foreign policy on the reports of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China should be taken as a strong and valid proof of China’s position9. He also argues that China belongs to a new model of major countries (新型大国), and is not at all a great power in the traditional sense (绝非传统意义上的大国). Therefore, China will never follow "the beaten track of big powers in seeking hegemony" (国强必霸). According to Ruan Zongze, Executive Vice President of the China Institute of International Studies, China is currently "rolling a boulder uphill (滚石上山)" and it would be unwise for China to provoke conflicts or disputes10. He also adds that no single country has ever led the world in the past, and this will never happen in the future. Hence, the concern over China’s intention to be in a leadership position in the international order is unnecessary.