In the last few years, Finland has aimed to hedge against evolving risks in its security environment by active participation in all relevant security and defense policy frameworks and initiatives.
In addition, the country has joined several defense cooperation initiatives such as the European Intervention Initiative led by France, the UK’s Joint Expeditionary Force and Germany’s Framework Nations Concept. Although it is not a member of the Alliance, Finland has increased its cooperation with NATO, with a particular focus on ensuring security in the Baltic Sea region. Bilaterally, it has strengthened ties with the United States and Sweden above all: Finnish-Swedish defense cooperation has been extended to all crisis scenarios. In the broader Nordic context, NORDEFCO has remained an important cooperation format. More recently, Finland, Sweden, and Norway signed an agreement aiming to upgrade their trilateral defense cooperation addressing security threats in the High North.